Chalmers Johnson: The Guns of August

by on August 17, 2010 · 13 comments

in American Empire, Economy, History, War and Peace

Afghanistan wounded carryLowering the Flag on the American Century

By Chalmers Johnson / Tom Dispatch / August 17, 2010

In 1962, the historian Barbara Tuchman published a book about the start of World War I and called it The Guns of August. It went on to win a Pulitzer Prize. She was, of course, looking back at events that had occurred almost 50 years earlier and had at her disposal documents and information not available to participants. They were acting, as Vietnam-era Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara put it, in the fog of war.

So where are we this August of 2010, with guns blazing in one war in Afghanistan even as we try to extricate ourselves from another in Iraq? Where are we, as we impose sanctions on Iran and North Korea (and threaten worse), while sending our latest wonder weapons, pilotless drones armed with bombs and missiles, into Pakistan’s tribal borderlands, Yemen, and who knows where else, tasked with endless “targeted killings” which, in blunter times, used to be called assassinations? Where exactly are we, as we continue to garrison much of the globe even as our country finds itself incapable of paying for basic services?

I wish I had a crystal ball to peer into and see what historians will make of our own guns of August in 2060. The fog of war, after all, is just a stand-in for what might be called “the fog of the future,” the inability of humans to peer with any accuracy far into the world to come. Let me nonetheless try to offer a few glimpses of what that foggy landscape some years ahead might reveal, and even hazard a few predictions about what possibilities await still-imperial America.

Let me begin by asking: What harm would befall the United States if we actually decided, against all odds, to close those hundreds and hundreds of bases, large and small, that we garrison around the world? What if we actually dismantled our empire, and came home? Would Genghis Khan-like hordes descend on us? Not likely. Neither a land nor a sea invasion of the U.S. is even conceivable.


Would 9/11-type attacks accelerate? It seems far likelier to me that, as our overseas profile shrank, the possibility of such attacks would shrink with it.

Would various countries we’ve invaded, sometimes occupied, and tried to set on the path of righteousness and democracy decline into “failed states?” Probably some would, and preventing or controlling this should be the function of the United Nations or of neighboring states. (It is well to remember that the murderous Cambodian regime of Pol Pot was finally brought to an end not by us, but by neighboring Vietnam.)

Sagging Empire

In other words, the main fears you might hear in Washington — if anyone even bothered to wonder what would happen, should we begin to dismantle our empire — would prove but chimeras. They would, in fact, be remarkably similar to Washington’s dire predictions in the 1970s about states all over Asia, then Africa, and beyond falling, like so many dominoes, to communist domination if we did not win the war in Vietnam.

What, then, would the world be like if the U.S. lost control globally — Washington’s greatest fear and deepest reflection of its own overblown sense of self-worth — as is in fact happening now despite our best efforts? What would that world be like if the U.S. just gave it all up? What would happen to us if we were no longer the “sole superpower” or the world’s self-appointed policeman?

In fact, we would still be a large and powerful nation-state with a host of internal and external problems. An immigration and drug crisis on our southern border, soaring health-care costs, a weakening education system, an aging population, an aging infrastructure, an unending recession — none of these are likely to go away soon, nor are any of them likely to be tackled in a serious or successful way as long as we continue to spend our wealth on armies, weapons, wars, global garrisons, and bribes for petty dictators.

Even without our interference, the Middle East would continue to export oil, and if China has been buying up an ever larger share of what remains underground in those lands, perhaps that should spur us into conserving more and moving more rapidly into the field of alternative energies.

Rising Power

Meanwhile, whether we dismantle our empire or not, China will become (if it isn’t already) the world’s next superpower. It, too, faces a host of internal problems, including many of the same ones we have. However, it has a booming economy, a favorable balance of payments vis-à-vis much of the rest of the world (particularly the U.S., which is currently running an annual trade deficit with China of $227 billion), and a government and population determined to develop the country into a powerful, economically dominant nation-state.

Fifty years ago, when I began my academic career as a scholar of China and Japan, I was fascinated by the modern history of both countries. My first book dealt with the way the Japanese invasion of China in the 1930s spurred Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party he headed on a trajectory to power, thanks to its nationalist resistance to that foreign invader. Incidentally, it is not difficult to find many examples of this process in which a domestic political group gains power because it champions resistance to foreign troops. In the immediate post-WWII period, it occurred in Vietnam, Indonesia, and Malaysia; with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, all over Eastern Europe; and today, it is surely occurring in Afghanistan and probably in Iraq as well.

Once the Cultural Revolution began in China in 1966, I temporarily lost interest in studying the country. I thought I knew where that disastrous internal upheaval was taking China and so turned back to Japan, which by then was well launched on its amazing recovery from World War II, thanks to state-guided, but not state-owned, economic growth.

This pattern of economic development, sometimes called the “developmental state,” differed fundamentally from both Soviet-type control of the economy and the laissez-faire approach of the U.S. Despite Japan’s success, by the 1990s its increasingly sclerotic bureaucracy had led the country into a prolonged period of deflation and stagnation. Meanwhile, post-U.S.S.R. Russia, briefly in thrall to U.S. economic advice, fell captive to rapacious oligarchs who dismantled the command economy only to enrich themselves.

In China, Communist Party leader Deng Xiaoping and his successors were able to watch developments in Japan and Russia, learning from them both. They have clearly adopted effective aspects of both systems for their economy and society. With a modicum of luck, economic and otherwise, and a continuation of its present well-informed, rational leadership, China should continue to prosper without either threatening its neighbors or the United States.

To imagine that China might want to start a war with the U.S. — even over an issue as deeply emotional as the ultimate political status of Taiwan — would mean projecting a very different path for that country than the one it is currently embarked on.

Lowering the Flag on the American Century

Thirty-five years from now, America’s official century of being top dog (1945-2045) will have come to an end; its time may, in fact, be running out right now. We are likely to begin to look ever more like a giant version of England at the end of its imperial run, as we come face-to-face with, if not necessarily to terms with, our aging infrastructure, declining international clout, and sagging economy. It may, for all we know, still be Hollywood’s century decades from now, and so we may still make waves on the cultural scene, just as Britain did in the 1960s with the Beatles and Twiggy. Tourists will undoubtedly still visit some of our natural wonders and perhaps a few of our less scruffy cities, partly because the dollar-exchange rate is likely to be in their favor.

If, however, we were to dismantle our empire of military bases and redirect our economy toward productive, instead of destructive, industries; if we maintained our volunteer armed forces primarily to defend our own shores (and perhaps to be used at the behest of the United Nations); if we began to invest in our infrastructure, education, health care, and savings, then we might have a chance to reinvent ourselves as a productive, normal nation. Unfortunately, I don’t see that happening. Peering into that foggy future, I simply can’t imagine the U.S. dismantling its empire voluntarily, which doesn’t mean that, like all sets of imperial garrisons, our bases won’t go someday.

Instead, I foresee the U.S. drifting along, much as the Obama administration seems to be drifting along in the war in Afghanistan. The common talk among economists today is that high unemployment may linger for another decade. Add in low investment and depressed spending (except perhaps by the government) and I fear T.S. Eliot had it right when he wrote: “This is the way the world ends, not with a bang but a whimper.”

I have always been a political analyst rather than an activist. That is one reason why I briefly became a consultant to the CIA’s top analytical branch, and why I now favor disbanding the Agency. Not only has the CIA lost its raison d’être by allowing its intelligence gathering to become politically tainted, but its clandestine operations have created a climate of impunity in which the U.S. can assassinate, torture, and imprison people at will worldwide.

Just as I lost interest in China when that country’s leadership headed so blindly down the wrong path during the Cultural Revolution, so I’m afraid I’m losing interest in continuing to analyze and dissect the prospects for the U.S. over the next few years. I applaud the efforts of young journalists to tell it like it is, and of scholars to assemble the data that will one day enable historians to describe where and when we went astray. I especially admire insights from the inside, such as those of ex-military men like Andrew Bacevich and Chuck Spinney. And I am filled with awe by men and women who are willing to risk their careers, incomes, freedom, and even lives to protest — such as the priests and nuns of SOA Watch, who regularly picket the School of the Americas and call attention to the presence of American military bases and misbehavior in South America.

I’m impressed as well with Pfc. Bradley Manning, if he is indeed the person responsible for potentially making public 92,000 secret documents about the war in Afghanistan. Daniel Ellsberg has long been calling for someone to do what he himself did when he released the Pentagon Papers during the Vietnam War. He must be surprised that his call has now been answered — and in such an unlikely way.

My own role these past 20 years has been that of Cassandra, whom the gods gave the gift of foreseeing the future, but also cursed because no one believed her. I wish I could be more optimistic about what’s in store for the U.S. Instead, there isn’t a day that our own guns of August don’t continue to haunt me.

Chalmers Johnson is the author of Blowback (2000), The Sorrows of Empire (2004), and Nemesis: The Last Days of the American Republic (2006), among other works. His newest book, Dismantling the Empire: America’s Last Best Hope (Metropolitan Books), has just been published.

For a wonderful introduction by Tom Dispatch, go here to the original.

{ 12 comments… read them below or add one }

Goatskull August 17, 2010 at 8:54 pm

“Let me begin by asking: What harm would befall the United States if we actually decided, against all odds, to close those hundreds and hundreds of bases, large and small, that we garrison around the world”

For those of us who are civilians employees of the DoD it would be a loss of jobs.


david August 17, 2010 at 10:55 pm

hey goatskull, I’ll hook you up driving a cab. you’ll meet more interesting people, the world will be a better place for everyone, and the special reward for you will be greatly improved kharma!


Goatskull August 18, 2010 at 7:07 pm

My karma is just fine. I’m not sure what exactly you picture that I do, but it is not working for a civilian contractor like Blackwater and pounding the ground shooting at people. I work in the Navy equivalent of an HR office. I work with military members and their families taking care of pay, benefits, travel entitlements for official travel, housing (both on base and off), limited duty assignments (for sick and injured sailors), etc. I feel quite good that I do my part in helping out and improving the lives of others.


Frank Gormlie August 18, 2010 at 7:09 am

Okay, we can’t dismantle the military empire because of jobs? Whew! You just told it like it is. The American people – or some of them at least – have a huge stake in the Empire. Well, it’s either empire or democracy – which will it be? Ya can’t have both.


Sunshine August 17, 2010 at 11:45 pm

i so enjoyed reading this article. love to follow an author who tells it like it is in plain and simple language i can understand.

as for the future of america….i shall continue marching forth taking care of my family, friends, and community around me as best i can with what little i have. it takes a village….


Ralph October 21, 2012 at 6:29 am

It is a noble thought to have the village reach out to help each other, however, the fact of the matter is that we are humans. And human nature tells us that the more the village does for you, the less you do for yourself. It always sounds good at first, but it always fails.

It is also human nature…when we vacate the World’s powerhouse, someone will fill it. It is human nature. When we back down, watch, China and Russia will fill it. Then when we have the next war to own the world …… too late. This great country, the United States of America is the only country in the history of the world who could conquer the world and chose not too. Lets leave it that way.


Frank Gormlie October 22, 2012 at 1:14 pm

Really? “The more the village does for you, the less you do for yourself?” is that your experience in OB or where you live?


Ralph October 22, 2012 at 1:32 pm

Human nature is animal nature. As soon as you start feeding the bears, the aligators, the dolphins, etc… they hunt less and expect you to feed them more. Usually they don’t mind hurting you if you stop feeding them. They can’t understand that you are running out of food, all they know is you stopped feeding them.
That is exactly what is happening in Europe. The village is out of free stuff and the animals are rioting.

The more the Village gives you, the more the Village expects to control. People don’t escape to control, they escape to FREEDOM.


Frank Gormlie October 22, 2012 at 1:39 pm

Where are you – in a zoo? JHC- dude, you sound like we live in caves and trees and haven’t progressed out of the jungle. Is this the sum total of your own human experience, Ralph?


Ralph October 22, 2012 at 1:47 pm

Hi Frank,

Take a look….China, Russia, Sir Lanka, Cuba…. Europe… Etc.
This country is a country of imigrants… a place of opportunity. As soon as we become a country of free bees then the government has no choice but to regulate the hand outs.
When we run out of hand outs we got problems. Everyday we borrow almost $4B of that $600M is just to pay the interest on the money we borrowed last year. Each american is $4300 more indebt than last year. A family of five almost $25,000. Just to pay for THIS years borrowing. In four years, a family of five is $100,000 more in debt through our government.
Soon enough the system collapses. What I can’t understand is how so many people don’t realize these symple truths. It is almost like someone addicted to drugs. You can’t talk sense to them because they are blinded by their addiction to drugs.


Frank Gormlie October 22, 2012 at 1:51 pm

Ralph – this debt that you speak about – is not the worse problem facing this country. Typically, conservatives bring it up to switch the discussion away from talk of how the control that Wall Street and the corporations have a lock down on the electoral process in America. Talk about simple truths – how about the simple truth that a handful of billionaires are trying to buy the 2012 election. They are the ones addicted to absolute power and they get upset when the peasants talk self-rule. Where do you stand in all of this?


Ralph October 22, 2012 at 2:20 pm

This Country has been self rule for over 200 years. I will agree, however, the Supreme Court Ruling allowing corporations to fund these Political Action Committees without restriction was a bad decision.

I would like to see the maximum contribution dropped to about $100 per candidate. I would like to see any program that calls itself a news program, be required to give some time to all candidates. Most of them would give it for free,


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